The Mole is the symbol of Turin. The tower's composite, classical style contrasts with its verticalism. Until a few years ago it was the highest stone building in Europe (167.50 metres). The Mole was built in 1863 like Synagogue, then become the house of the Museo del Risorgimento, and now it's the site of the new National Cinema Museum.
Piazza Castello was designed in 1564 by Vitozzi. It's lined with porticoes and is the real heart of the city: here and hereabouts stand the great buildings that have witnessed the development of the city, from the ancient Roman era to our days. In the middle of the square stands Palazzo Madama and on the side you could see The Royal Theatre, The Royal Palace, the Royal Library (that houses Leonardo da Vinci's operas). In Piazza Castello (The Castle Square) begin the most important central streets, like Rome Street, Po Street, Garibaldi Street and Pietro Micca Street..
Porta Palatina is the most conspicuos parts of Roman walls towers. during the Middle Ages, the fortress was called "Palatium", hence its present name. On Via XX Settembre, some of the ruins of Roman Theatre, near the basement of the Royal Palace.
The Basilica of Superga was commisioned by Amedeo II of Savoy: it was designed by Filippo Juvarra in 1717 and completed in 1731. It was built to fulfil a vow made to the Virgin Mary - to whom a chapel is dedicated on the hill - by the Duke on the eve of his victory over the French, who were besieging the city, on september 1706. In the cript is possible to visit part of Savoy dinasty tombs.
A curiosity: a nice old track railway from Sassi will take you up to the hill of Superga, where you can enjoy one of the finest views visible from the hills of Turin.
Palazzo Madama stands in the centre of Castle Square. The history of the Palace reflects the history of the city. Infact its baroque facade contrasts sharply with older medieval parts to lend the building a most unorthodox apparence. The palace incorporate parts of ancient Roman gate, wich was converted into a castle in the Middle Ages. In the 17th century it became the residence of the Madama Reale (Royal Widow). In 1721 Filippo Juvarra enbellish the palace with a splendid baroque facade. The Palace housed the work of Subalpine and Italian Senate from 1848 to 1864. Today, it's used like Civic Ancient Art Museum (Museo Civico di Arte Antica).
The Castello and Borgo Medievale, a mock medieval castle and village, were built in 1884 as part of 1st Italian General Exibition. The castle is an exact replica of the Castle of Fenis (Aosta Valley), and the village is similar to a Piedmont medieval little township.
The Gran Madre di Dio, or "Great Mother of God", was built in 1831 to commemorate the return of the Savoy following French occupation in 1814. It's on the side of the bridge dedicated to Vittorio Emanuele I and visible from Via Po. In front of the temple: Piazza Vittorio Veneto.
Palazzo Carignano is one of the Guarini's most original creations. It was built in 1679-1685 with an undulating baroque facade, a majestic atrium and a lovely gardens. The Palace of the Savoy - Carignano line has staged many of the most important events in the history of Italy and Piedmont. The Palace now houses the Museo Nazionale del Risorgimento.
The Cathedral is Turin's only example of Renaissance architecture. It was built in 1498 and dedicated to John the Baptist. The Chapel of Holy Shroud was added in 1668-1694. Alongside the Cathedral it's possible to admire the romanesque campanile (1470).